Re: NANFA-- RE: Animals

Bruce Stallsmith (
Sat, 08 Jul 2000 13:42:03 EDT

The big whoop in systematics is to erect three Domains over the existing
Kingdoms: the Domain Bacteria, Domain Archaea and Domain Eukarya. The first
two are based on the old Kingdom Monera (prokaryotes, or bacteria) since
there is molecular evidence that the two basic groups of bacteria are at
least as dissimilar from each as they are from the traditional four Kingdoms
of the eukaryotes (larger, more complex cells: Protista, Fungi, Plantae and
Animalia). We live in the age of splitters, so in the Eukarya one could
argue for at least 8 Kingdoms largely by subdividing the Protista. And then
some botanical systematists claim that the Plantae should be split into

The good news is, worms are still Animalia; in fact most of the phyla within
the Animalia are worms of some sort.

--Bruce Stallsmith
Huntsville, AL
Huntsville, AL

>It depends on who you talk to and what reference you use. Until 1969
>there were generally considered to be 3 kingdoms. Now you can find
>references listing anywhere between 4 and 13, though most seem to go for
>5 or 6. My biology class went for 5. Animalia, Plantal, Protista, Fungi
>and Monera. I believe the jury is still out for viruses.
>Some of the characteristics of the Animalia Kingdom are that they are
>multicellular, motile, have cell walls, and usually reproduce sexually,
>though some reproduce asexually.

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